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Applications on Stewardship

By Dr. Richard J. Krejcir
Stewardship Research Part XVI

Stewardship Research Part XVI

Findings and Discussion

Suggestions to better enable our financial giving:

· The bottom line focus on discipleship and not numbers, focus on preaching Christ and not trends, focus on expository and exegetical preaching and not trendy feel good topics! Be growing your people and they will in turn give out of their gratitude and in abundance because it is not out of obligation!

Is tithing for today?

Tithing is a very misunderstood as is Stewardship. Postmodern thinking in Evangelical Christianity is to, think we "give." But in actuality, we "bring!" it is about being obedient to what God has told us clearly, He bless us and we in turn are to bless others. It is all His to begin with, so we must adjust our thinking and lifestyle to correspond to a deeper spiritual formation in our thinking and behaviors.

The answer is no--as a forced obligation. The answer is also yes--if it is a response from the heart. We are not obligated to give any amount. But, when we have the right mindset, based on the Word of God and a heart that flows with gratitude for what He has done, yes, we will want to give all that we are able to. I believe that in the debates, occurring over the centuries since the early church, and now to the classrooms in seminary, and to the message boards I pursued, money and religion have always gone together. Money and religion have always fought each other in people's pride and inclinations. Just as Jesus' anger with the money changers in the temple and Luther's outrage with the selling indulgences in the pre-Reformation period, to the TV preachers we have today saying, "if you give to me, God will give to you ten times as much," it all comes down to motivation, greed, and the idol of money. We will bow to money or we will bow to God. The question is what do you truly worship? Where is your motivation? Where is your heart?

And, so the controversy continues, as the presumptions and feelings of men take over sound reasoning and dialog. I call you to search the Scriptures and see for yourself what God requires of you. As for my family and me, we will give all we can with our time, talents, and treasures for His glory. What about my opinion of ten percent? I agree with the Puritans and the early church. Give what you can, but not as an obligation; it all belongs to Him for His glory! Ten percent is a good place to start! Good stewardship is where we start! Sometimes you may not be able to give much. When I was in school I could not give most of the time, so I augmented more volunteer time. Today I am a missionary and struggle day to day. God has provided for my family, but not in any kind of abundance or what we call in the US, "discretionary income." So, I volunteer in areas in my church outside of my pastoral responsibilities and give what I can of the treasures the Lord has given me. Even in my poverty, after doing my taxes, I realized I did give just over ten percent, and I do not know how I did! He provided

View your promise to give to God that which is referred to as your tithe, like an income tax. Although it is not mandatory, it is a reflection of your character and response to His grace. As the government so nicely swipes away your hard-earned money from the top of your paycheck, consider joyfully setting also the top 10% of your net, or better yet, the gross income, for the Lord's service-- before the bills, expenses, and entertainment. Do not include the tithe in your budget. Make your budget on the net assets you have after the tithe and taxes. Then, you will have a more realistic budget and keep yourself from getting into debt. That way, it is done and out of the way. Then, carefully decide to whom it should go. The primary responsibility is first to your local church, and second to ministries that are doing the Lord's work. Remember, the people who set aside the first fruits of their resources to God are dedicating themselves to God, and not themselves to themselves.

The tithe was fair and is still fair today. Every one is on the same playing- paying field. So the rich paid more and the poor paid lees. If our taxes worked that way we would have a balanced budget and be a nation out of depth and not even have to pay income tax, if we went to a 10% national tax on all goods and serves sold! All you have to do is divide 10% from the gross national product and compare it to what the IRS gets annually and what the national depth is.

(Reference and History from "History of the Christian Church" by Schaff; "A History of Christianity Vol. I &II" by Latourette, "The IVP Bible Background Commentary," by Keener, and "The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church")!

What the Church needs to be doing:

· Preaching in love and care the Need to Give because of our gratitude for what Christ has done for us. Contrary to popular pastor thinking, my research shows that most Christians are willing to hear about joyful giving, if you approach it in the right way.

· Concentrate on raising and developing Faith Before Money!

· Seek new ways to stimulate the potential Givers, such as tools for discipleship so people are deepening their love for God and in turn are supporting God's work.

· Focus on gratefulness Christians who are selfish will be shortsighted and will not be consistent or faithful in stewardship! Scripture suggests that our direct disobedience toward God is an act of ingratitude.

· Teach that God is at work in every situation of our lives. As a mature Christian will "give thanks in all circumstances, for this is God's will for you in Christ Jesus (1 Thessalonians 5:18)."

· Beware that ingratitude in our lives is a sign of a lack of faith and trust in Christ. From this dangerous mindset we will quickly forget about God's provisions, all this from a life that has not been or refuses to be discipled.

· The Churches main call? Is to make disciples (Matt 28:16-20)!

· The Christian who tends to be shortsighted also suffers from the symptom of unbelief.

· Giving generously involves much more than performing outward actions; it comes from what Christ is doing in the heart! True generosity must be motivated by a heart that is poured out to Christ.

· When a Christian is giving from selfish motives, they expect a return in their "investment," when a real growing mature Christian gives nothing is expected in return. As their investment is eternal, the other so called Christian investment is in the world of today.

· Tithe? The bottom line is the size of the gift does not matter because Scripture teaches that God rejects both gift and giver if it comes from arterial motives.

Instilling in the Congregation the Joy of being a good steward

· Money and running the church has always been needed and always have gone together. Yet, the view we are to have is it is a tool, not an idol, it is to help not to control. Money has been used to control congregations for people to impose their power from selling indulgences, misguided perhaps corrupt TV preachers we have today, to "the church lady" getting her way over His Way. But money is to be used to build infrastructure not a means of corruption as Jesus demonstrated when He drove the moneychangers from the temple.

· How do you feel when churches, ministries or even missionaries seeking and asking for funds. Do you cringe or see them as opportunities to serve. Have you ever thought that how we give is a prime picture of what is in our hearts and comment to our Lord? And when we refuse to give or are very stingy we are skipping key opportunities to serve and be used of God?

· A lot of people see pastors and the church as institutions only seeking your money. But a good church and leadership will never force or coerce people to give, but lead by example and by encouragement.

· Why must we give? Without faithful giving we would have no way to finance the infrastructure of the church, the salary of its servants, helping the people, providing the programs and opportunities and most importantly, the spread of the gospel or even the building of schools, hospitals and such. Not just the buildings but to do as our Lord has called us to do! Mal. 3: 8- tells us, we rob God when we refuse to give or give too little. The most important investment we could ever make is for the Kingdome of God!

· Thinking if I only had more is not an excuse to not give, as even the richest people on earth feel they do not have enough, our enough is who we are in Christ not our financial portfolio.

· If we feel giving is not for me, we are failing our Lord and misusing His resources. As when we are faithful will gain greater riches of greater value.

· We must have a healthy view of money, and how we use our time, spiritual gifts and talents. All we have belongs to someone else, to our Lord and creator, we are His caretakers. Thus when we fail to handle our stewardship faithfully that which belongs to will deprive us from having our own.

· We need to stop looking for approval from society, and seek His approval. Character will be the fruit of that endeavor.

· If you feel you cannot handle what God has trusted you with, ask yourself, how can I handle more of what will be mine? (Ecc. 5; Luke 16:10)

The way of God is not about "feel good" comfort and self gratification; rather, it is an eternal perspective with a life that is created, honed, and ruled by the Lord of the Universe. People with fewer assets to lose are more willing to accept Christ and act in good stewardship because they see they have less to give up. People with influence and wealth have more to lose, so they think, and reject Christ or put limits on their faith and on what they are willing to do. The touchtone theme of Jesus' point is how we come before God. It is not about whom we are in the world or what we can do. It is not about us at all; it is all about Him, about God's love, God's grace, and God's mercy (Matthew 19: 13-30). Children are far better at modeling humility and trust than adults because we have so much baggage from life; we need to be stripped of what holds us back. Perhaps, that is the main reason we have children and spend so much time in our childhood-to learn trust, abiding, and love. We learn them, and then we tend to forget them and switch to other things that distract us. Allow the children to remind you about faith and the important things in life. Allow Christ to strip you to your bare self, with no distractions or concerns other than to see Him! The only way we can receive His regeneration, the Kingdom of Heaven, is by our abiding trust. Let the children and Christ teach you!

Restating the bottom line: Focus on discipleship and not numbers, focus on preaching Christ and not trends, focus on expository and exegetical preaching and not trendy feel good topics! Be growing your people and they will in turn give out of their gratitude and not out of obligation!

· Spiritual maturity is a process that begins when a person accepts Jesus Christ as Savior Galatians 2:20-21; 5:16-25; 1 Timothy 2:15; 3:16-17; Hebrews 5:13-14; 13:20-21; 2 Peter 1:3-9.

· Spiritual maturity is a process that begins when a person accepts Jesus Christ as Savior and continues on as sanctification. The more a Christian grows the more gratitude they feel, the more poured out to Christ, they feel and more fruit is demonstrated from their lives.

· To further develop your life in Christ, you must make the determination to learn and practice God's Word; then we will be more willing to allow God to renew your mind (Romans 12), and then be obedient to what you learn.

· As a Christian, you can set your path for your growth, you can just be milk-fed with trivialities and the simple and never veneering further. Or you can determine to fallow His call and chew on the "meat" of God's Word. Discover God's truth by venturing in-depth Bible study and feed yourself spiritually in the disciplines of the faith. Then that sustenance to your spiritual formation will be more realized and acted upon, then a proper attitude and practice of stewardship will commence. This is the result of growing in Him, His Word, prayer, fellowship all by walking in the Holy Spirit.

Learning to be Generous

This topic of stewardship and how much or how should I give is closely tied together with the Character of Generosity. We must ask ourselves, if the Character of Generosity working in you? Here is how you can find out. Take a careful look at this character and Fruit of Generosity from God's most precious Word by examining the passages below. Now ask yourself:

  1. How do I exhibit Generosity in my daily life?
  2. What can I do to develop a mindset to know that all I have in life belongs to God, and, since He supplies all I have and need, I can model His grace through being Generous?
  3. What blocks me from being Generous?
  4. How can I make Generosity function better, stronger, and faster, even in times of uncertainly and stress?

· Here are positive examples from Scripture (Exodus 36:2-7; Luke 7:44-8:3; 10:33-37; 21:1-4; 2 Corinthians 8:1-7)

· Here are negative examples from Scripture (Haggai 1:2-9; Malachi 3:8-12; Matthew 25:31-46; 26:6-13)

Generosity (Deuteronomy 16:17; Proverbs 11:24-25; 13:7; Matthew 10:8; 2 Corinthians 9: 6-15) as a Scriptural definition, refers to give without expectations in return. This attitude and character allows us to give to others because God has given abundantly to us. It is the wise use of stewardship and the attitude that all possessions belong to God. We are merely the caretakers for His purpose. It will see the Lord as the Source of true blessing, not our selfish desires.

The opposites are Greed, Stinginess, Selfishness and Miserliness. These rotten fruits rot because we hoard them and do not use them properly as Christ called us to do. This blocks the flow of God's blessings and 'living water' from flowing in us. We will become stagnant and useless to the Kingdom or the people around us. Pride and arrogance will be the driving force, the quintessential things that God hates the most (Proverbs 6:16-18)!

Generosity is the realization we have His living water (John 4; 7:38) flowing in us. To keep it fresh, it must flow out of us, too! The Dead Sea in Israel is dead. There is no life is in it because it has no outlet. It has a river flowing into it, but the water remains there, and becomes stagnated with harsh salts and minerals to the point that nothing can live or grow there. When we are stingy, we become like the Dead Sea--stagnant and lifeless. The living water within us will quickly become stagnant, like a mud puddle with mosquito larvae growing in it, useless, and even dangerous.

Generosity is an example of our trust and reliance on God. Because He has given so much to us, way beyond what we can comprehend, we can therefore be charitable with others. This is an act of worship--to model Christ, and see the big picture that goods and material things are not important, but relationships are. This goes to giving back to God, providing to those who have less, and making sure your church is modeling this character. A selfish church that does not give, and only sees themselves as a charity, will become a Dead Sea rather quickly. How sad and pathetic that would be--an unconcerned, uncaring, and self-absorbed quandary to the neighborhood, and a disgrace to the Kingdom!

Think through the steps you need to take to put Generosity into action in a specific instance. If you are not a giving or hospitable person, seek to discover why. You are blocking God's work in you. How can you release your selfish attitudes, and embrace the flowing in and out of His work in you? The lack of Generosity will reflect a lack of faith and obedience! If you think there are no rivers coming into you, then seek what is blocking them. Is it sin, attitude, fear….? God blesses those who steadfastly embrace His call, and who stay true to Christ.

Let yourself be a rich and growing reservoir, overflowing like a fountain of living water that refreshes and encourages all those around you (Eph. 5:18). This will be your sweetness and virtue to others, which will point them to God and be a welcome mat to the Christian life.

· Our relationship with Christ as Lord and not just savior is only true stewardship motivator!

· Guilt, consumerism, enticing appeals, fancy campaigns, loyalty to the denomination, obligation or manipulation does not work! We as Christians are only effectively motivated by obedience, and never by manipulation. The focus needs to be how we can be more obedient to God and as leaders be motivators for Christian stewardship. We are blessed, not for our own benefit, but we are blessed in order to be a blessing to others (Gen 12: 1-3).

· Thus, real Christian stewardship is a more of lifestyle from our willingness to grow in Christ. This is the quintessential motivation, our personal spiritual maturity, one's growing relationship with God and a passion for Him.

Applications from the United Reformed Church practice

It is about being encouraged in Him, when we have a passion for God, we will have a willingness to support His Church and Ministries. The Mission of the church is simply what the church does (our ought to do) as a church. The "Growing Up" report was adopted as a basis for the URC's (United Reformed Church) mission strategy at the 1999 General Assembly. One of the tools identified for turning ideas into reality was The Five Marks of Mission. These can be summarized as:

Tell Proclaim the good news of the Kingdom- lay preaching, formation of worship groups and teams, more congregational involvement in worship, worship style changes, alpha courses

Teach Teach, baptize, nurture new believers- Junior Church work, all age worship groups, Elders Training Courses, Bible Study groups, House Groups, Seminars, Retreats and Away Days.

Tend Respond to human need in loving service- Development of Pastoral Teams, Community Work, Day Centers, and Counseling.

Treasure Sustain and renew the life of the earth- Church Energy Management, Recycling events, supporting charity and other environmental causes, ethical investment.

Transform to transform unjust structures in society- Commitment for Life, Christian Aid and other agency support, community projects and social justice campaigns, support FairTrade goods.

Remember -

It is God's Mission - not ours

Tell, Teach: Worship and proclamation

Tend, Transform Outreach and Service 'Mission'

Tend, Treasure Fellowship and Pastoral Care

Another Mission Activity Definition of the Practice of Good Stewardship

SERVICE: All tasks which help and support others both within and beyond the life of the local church, such as helping at coffee mornings, preparing meals for senior citizens, working with Relate, being involved with Citizens Advice Bureau, etc.

WORSHIP, EDUCATION AND CHRISTIAN NURTURE: Leading or participating in study and prayer groups, Junior Church and Youth Groups, running the bookstall, arranging Bible reading notes, etc.

EVANGELISM AND OUTREACH: Activities to and for the wider community; this might be helping to keep the church open for visitors, visiting those recently moved to the area, Parent-and Toddler groups, baptism follow-up, etc.

PASTORAL CARE: Hospital and home visits, marriage and bereavement counseling, etc.






Small declining membership roll

No young people involved

No social groups or organizations

Small number of Elders


Relatively static membership roll

A few young people involved

A few social groups and organizations within the life of the Church

Elders Group meet monthly


Growing membership roll

Active youth church

A cross section of social groups and organizations within the life of the Church

Elders Group meet regularly and Mission enablers appointed


No manse, listed building Maintenance a major burden

Buildings outdated not suitable or current membership or use

No community use


Manse & buildings a major source of expenditure after ministry

Facilities updated as resources allow

Utilized by Church and community during week as source of income


Well maintained buildings and manse.

Welcoming environment

Good facilities used to capacity by Church membership and community as centre for services

Regularly upgraded & projects planned in financial budgets


Low direct giving income

Difficulty in meeting costs

Budget met by income from past investments

Occasional jumble sales etc

Implement TRIO program


Full cost of ministry by direct giving

Budget deficit met by fund raising

Investment funds provide for building maintenance

Special collections for causes

Implement TRIO program


Majority of income by direct giving. Fund raising for causes

Budget surplus into reserves for mission projects - investment

Implement TRIO program


Oversight - visiting preachers

Pastoral care limited

Traditional style worship

No set preaching pattern

Old hymn books

No pew bibles


Stipendiary supported by lay preachers

Elders pastoral care lists

Varied styles of worship service but

mainly traditional, no midweek service

Preaching pattern follows lectionary

Several Hymn Books available

Bibles available in some pews

Organ or Piano to accompany

Occasional bible study class


Stipendiary supported by CRCW and lay worship leaders

Pastoral Care Teams

Vibrant participation worship style mainly towards evangelical

Positive preaching plan displayed

Bibles available for everybody

Worship led by music group

Bible study programme

Mission outreach by paid leaders


No bible study

No prayer groups

No social groups in church life

Volunteer dependant


Occasional bible study

Ad hoc prayer meetings

Social groups and organizations

Committee structured

Volunteer leadership

Represented in wider church

Eldership monthly meetings


Planned bible study

Regular Prayer Groups

Christian education groups

Team structured

Paid leadership plus selected skilled volunteers

Eldership Team/Group training

Encouraging courses, such as Alpha, Emmaus

Social & Community Care groups

Proclaiming the good news of the Kingdom, Teach, baptize, and nurture new believers, Respond to human need in loving service, Sustain and renew the life of the earth, Seek to transform unjust structures of society: THINK ABOUT IT, PRAY ABOUT IT, ACT!

(The "Growing Up" report was adopted as a basis for the URC's (United Reformed Church) mission strategy at the 1999 General Assembly proposal)

Appliance of Relevant Scriptural Passages

· Proverbs 28:20: A faithful man will be richly blessed, but one eager to get rich will not go unpunished.

· 1 Corinthians 2:9: However, as it is written: "No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him."

· Ephesians 1:18: I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints.

· Hebrews 10:35: So do not throw away your confidence; it will be richly rewarded.

· Revelations 21:1-4: Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, "Now the dwelling of God is with men, and he will live with them. They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning…


Presented bibliography of general resources used ("Specific Citations" and References are listed in the "Harvard System" in the text itself)


1. Alford, Henry. The New Testament for English Readers. Vols. 1, 3. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1983.

2. Balz and Schneider, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, Volume 2, page 499.

3. Bernard, J. H. The Pastoral Epistles (CGT). Cambridge: University Press, 1899.

4. Blenkin, G. W. The First Epistle of Peter (CGT). Cambridge: University Press, 1914.

5. John Calvin, The Institutes, 3.7.5.

6. Craig Dykstra, Growing in the Life of Faith, (Louisville: Geneva Press) 1999 page 19.

7. Daniel Migliore, Faith Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans) 1991

8. Earle, Ralph. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Vols.1, 4, 5. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1979.

9. Lee, Witness. Life-Study of Ephesians. Anaheim: Living Stream Ministry, 1984.

10. Life-Study of Colossians. Anaheim: Living Stream Ministry, 1984.

11. Life-Study of Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, Philemon. Anaheim: Living Stream Ministry, 1984.

12. Life-Study of James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter. Anaheim: Living Stream Ministry, 1985.
Moule, H. C. G. Ephesians (CBSC). Cambridge: University Press, 1906.

13. The Epistle to the Colossians (CBSC). Cambridge: University Press, 1902.
Plumptre, E. H. St Peter & St Jude (CBSC). Cambridge: University Press, 1893.

14. Krejcir, Richard Joseph. Into Thy Word, 2000. New York, Writers Digest

15. Robinson, J. Armitage. St Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Macmillan, 1941.

16. Selwyn, Edward Gordon. The First Epistle of St. Peter. London: Macmillan, 1949.

17. Westcott, Brooke Foss. Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Macmillan, 1906.

18. Sondra Ely Wheeler, Wealth as Peril and Obligation: The New Testament on possessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995).

19. The Greek New Testament Bible edited by Metzger

20. The use of varied English Bible versions, Septuagint, Lexicons, Bible Dictionaries, biblical Encyclopaedias, Greek grammar works and Concordances.

21. Scripture taken from the HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®. NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society. Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved.


22. Elaine W. Barnett, Laura S. Gordon, and Margaret A. Hendrix, The Big Book of Presbyterian Stewardship (Louisville: Geneva Press, 2001).

23. Craig Blomberg, Neither Poverty or Riches: A biblical theology of possessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).

24. Kennon L. Callahan, Giving and Stewardship in an Effective Church (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997).

25. Marie Cross, The Price of Faith: Exploring our choices about money and wealth (Louisville: Geneva Press, 2002).

26. Dan R. Dick, Revolutionizing Christian Stewardship for the 21st Century: Lessons from Copernicus (Nashville: Discipleship Resources, 1997).

27. Laura Dunham, Graceful Living: Your faith, values, and money in changing times (New York: Reformed Church in America Press, 2002).

28. Michael Durall, Creating Congregations of Generous People (Washington, D.C.: Alban, 1999).

29. Justo L. Gonzalez, Faith and Wealth: A history of early Christian ideas on the origin, significance, and use of money (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990).

30. Eugene Grimm, Generous People: How to encourage vital stewardship (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1994).

31. Peter Davids. The Epistle of James. Eerdmans. 1982.

32. Expositors Bible Commentary,. Zondervan. 1994.

33. Douglas John Hall, The Steward: A Biblical Symbol Come of Age (NewYork: Association Press, 1982).

34. Halley's Bible Handbook. Regency. 1927.

35. John C. Haughey, The Holy Use of Money: Personal finance in light of Christian faith (New York: Crossroad, 1989).

36. John C. Haughey, Virtue and Affluence: The challenge of wealth. (Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1997).

37. Dean Hoge,, Plain Talk About Churches and Money (Washington, D.C.: Alban, 1997).

38. James Hudnut-Beumler, "Creating a Commonwealth: The theology and ethics of church endowments," Congregations (July-August 1997).

39. James Hudnut-Beumler, Generous Saints: Congregations rethinking ethics and money (Washington, D.C.: Alban, 1999).

40. Thomas H. Jeavons and Rebekah Burch Basinger, Growing Giver's Hearts:Treating fundraising as ministry (San Franciso: Jossey-Bass, 2000).

41. Craig S. Keener. The IVP Bible Background Commentary. Inter Varsity Press. 1993.

42. Ralph Martin. James. Word. 1988.

43. Patrick H. McNamara, More than Money: Portraits of transformative stewardship (Washington, D.C.: Alban, 1999).

44. Loren B. Mead, Financial Meltdown in the Mainline? (Washington, D.C.: Alban, 1998).

45. Jacob Needleman, Money and the Meaning of Life (New York: Doubleday Currency, 1991).

46. New Geneva Study Bible. Thomas Nelson. 1995.

47. William R. Phillipe, A Stewardship Scrapbook (Louisville: Geneva Press, 1999).

48. John & Sylvia Ronsvalle, At Ease: Discussing money and values in small groups (Washington, D.C.: Alban, 1998).

49. John & Sylvia Ronsvalle, Behind the Stained Glass Windows: Money dynamics in the church (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996).

50. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) "Choices: Living and Learning in God's World" (Louisville: Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 1997).

51. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Covenants of Stewardship (Louisville: Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 1994).

52. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Stewardship Manual (Louisville: Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 1994).

53. R.C. Sproul. Essential Truths of the Christian Faith. Tyndale. 1992.

54. Jerome H Smith, Ed. The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge. Thomas Nelson. 1992.

55. Sturgeon's Devotional Bible. Baker Books. 1964.

56. Warren Wiersbe. With the Word. Oliver Nelson. 1991.

57. Robert Wuthnow, The Crisis in the Churches: Spiritual malaise, fiscal woe (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

58. Robert Wuthnow, God and Mammon in America (New York: Free Press, 1984).

59. The Works of Justin

60. The Works of Josephus

61. The Works Eusebius

62. The Works of Early Church Fathers

63. Research at the Scholarly Archives at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, CA;Years of study & teaching notes;Seminary notes; Prayer

Links on the World Wide Web also considered in this study

© Research from 2001- 2004, revised 2007 R. J. Krejcir Ph.D. Francis A. Schaeffer Institute of Church Leadership Development

© 2007 - 2022 Institute of Church Leadership Development - All Rights Reserved.
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